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Waste management is the systematic approach to manage waste from its collection to final disposal. Waste management is essential in today’s society. Due to an increase in population and industrialization, the amount of waste is increasing day by day. In olden days, there was hardly any need for managing waste as most of it was biodegradable. The waste was easily disposed of by burying it in a pit or by burning.  In present times, the waste generated is of different kinds therefore we are forced to think of new ways to manage it.

Types of Wastes

There are two types of waste – organic and inorganic. Vegetable waste, old paper, cloth, dried leaves etc. constitute the organic waste which can be disposed of easily. But inorganic waste like, plastic bags, cans or containers, toys, glass bottles, electronic waste (the old parts of used electronic gadgets, mobile phones etc.) hospital waste (like used syringes & tubes) and industrial waste being non-degradable cannot be disposed of easily. These wastes are a threat to our environment and a problem being faced by all developing countries.

Methods of Waste Management

Landfills: In this method, the garbage is buried in large pits located far away from the populated areas and then covered by a layer of mud. Over the years, the garbage gets decomposed in the pits.

Thermal Treatment: Another method of disposal is thermal treatment or burning of waste. This is used for bio-medical waste. 

Composting: it is a process of getting rid of organic waste by converting it into fertilizers. It also increases the fertility of the soil.

Recycling: it is the method of converting the non-bio degradable waste into useful resources. For example, plastic can be properly melted and transformed into other plastic products. Similarly the metal parts in the electronic waste can be processed and recycled.


Government should formulate an effective system of waste management. Eco-friendly materials like paper and cloth bags should be encouraged instead of plastic. Individually also, people should separate wet and dry waste and keep them in proper bins. Proper waste management is a collective effort and we all have our roles and responsibilities in it. 

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