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Overpopulation can be defined as an undesirable condition where the existing human population on the earth exceeds the actual carrying capacity of this planet. Over the past fifty years, the growth of the population on this planet has boomed by a considerable level and it has now turned into overpopulation. The birth and death rates are no longer able to balance each other. Studies reveal that developing nations experience more trouble due to overpopulation as compared to developed countries. As the governments fail to take adequate measures for population control, it keeps on multiplying the count of people living within an area. Overpopulation can be caused by various reasons and it affects the overall quality of life of every person. 

Causes of overpopulation

There are many reasons for the Overpopulation.

  • . Lack of women’s education and early age marriage are the main reasons. The high rate of illiteracy of women also causes population growth as they are unaware of the birth control methods.
  • . The lifespan of people has increased by a considerable level. The new medical treatment facilities are increasing the life expectancy of people nowadays. Also, the quality and nutritious food, good living standards, hygienic and sanitation facilities help in increasing life expectancy.
  • . The lack of awareness about family planning among the people increases the birth rate rapidly. Moreover, the birth rate has increased more than the death rate.
  • . Poverty is also a reason for overpopulation. Several poor people think of their child as an asset who earns to support their family income at an early age.
  • Several families demand a male child that leads to an increase in the birth rate.

Impacts of overpopulation.

  • The overpopulation impacts the natural resources and the social and economic development of the country.
  • It increases the unemployment problem as the demand for jobs also increases with increase in population. The rise in unemployment gives rise to crimes, such as theft, robbery, kidnappings etc., as people want to feed their families and provide them basic needs of life.
  • Overpopulation also hampers the availability of good food, healthy living conditions, better sanitation facilities and nutrition for every person.
  • Due to overpopulation there is overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, which has started producing harmful effects on our environment. Moreover, the exponential rise in the number of vehicles and industries has badly affected the quality of air.
  • As the difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation, it raises the prices of various essential goods like food, shelter and healthcare. This means that people have to pay more to survive.
  • The impact of overpopulation on the world’s wildlife is severe. As demand for land grows, the destruction of natural habitats, such as forests, becomes common.

Prevention of Overpopulation

  • There are various methods by which we can prevent Overpopulation. 
  • Raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about harmful after-effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth.
  • Integrate family planning and safe motherhood programs into primary health care systems
  • Educating the masses helps them understand the need to have one or two children at the most.
  • Restricting child marriage and raising the legal age of marriage to minimum 18 years.
  • Make population and environmental issues and sex education part of the basic educational curriculum.
  • Giving tax breaks to families with a low count of children will encourage a lower count of births.

In order to reduce the adverse impacts of overpopulation, mitigation measures, such as spreading awareness and education about overpopulation, executing birth control measures and regulations, and providing universal access to birth control devices and family planning counselling, must be taken.

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