What is Brain Drain | Causes and Effects | Reasons Of Brain Drain
Brain drain is a broad term used to describe the migration of skilled and talented people from one country to another in search of a better life and better jobs. The term “Brain Drain” was first utilized by the united kingdom in 1960 when the skilled workers started migrating from the developing countries to the developed ones . It is also called human capital flight. This is of growing concern worldwide because developing countries have invested in the education and training of young professionals. This results in a loss of considerable resources when these people migrate, with the direct benefit flowing to the recipient countries who have not invested in educating them. Genius and knowledgeable citizens of any country are the most expensive resources.
Brain drain happens at three levels – geographical, organizational and industrial. First is Geographical brain drain in which highly talented and skilled people move to some other country in search of higher paying jobs. This has a negative influence on the country’s economy and it’s overall development. Second is the Organizational brain drain. It is termed as the large-scale migration of highly skilled, talented and creative people from one organization to another. Third is Industrial brain drain, it is the migration of skilled workers from one industry to another in search of better job opportunities.
There are several factors that lead to brain drain at these levels like Geographic brain drain usually happens because of unstable political situation of a country, lack of good job opportunities, lack of good health facilities, poor quality of life etc. Further, Organizational talent drain happens because of lack of better leadership and management qualities in the organization, lack of fair promotion, little to no scope for personal growth, salary below industry average, no acknowledgement for several hours of continuous work, employment in a village are some of the major reasons for people to look for jobs elsewhere. So we have clearly identified the prime factors responsible for brain drain. In order to prevent brain drain to happen we need to create better job opportunities with industry standard salary package, modern infrastructure with a clean and healthy environment for our skilled and trained workers.